Vitamins and Minerals for Recovery and Repair by Dr. Mauro DiPasquale
Recovery and repair of tissues require a host of :: vitamins and minerals :: that participate in synthesis of new cells and tissue. For example, certain vitamins and minerals are required to facilitate the formation of endogenous anti-inflammatory compounds, including Vitamin B6, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, niacin, zinc, selenium and magnesium. Many vitamins and minerals also serve as antioxidants and help protect cells against the oxidative damage produced by inflammation.
Vitamin C is necessary for collagen synthesis and is a strong antioxidant. It’s involved in the enzymatic hydroxylation of proline to form 4-hydroxyproline, an amino acid that is an integral part of collagen and elastin.
Research on vitamin C shows that it may have important effects in reducing pain and inflammation secondary to exercise. In one study 400 mg daily of vit C reduced postexercise pain and inflammation.1 In another the use of vitamin C increased recovery from demanding exercise.2
As well as being an antioxidant, vitamin E, has been demonstrated to reduce exercise induced muscle damage. and muscle damage3 pain in arthritic patients.
Both :: vitamin C :: and E are important in treatment of arthritic conditions, as shown in studies, possibly by reducing oxidative stress induced by TNF- . And both of these vitamins are also helpful in reducing muscle soreness secondary to exercise. Clinical studies report that supplementing with vitamin E and C reduce post-exercise inflammation and pain in muscles and joints.
:: Vitamin D deficiency :: is fairly common, especially in the more Northern climates.4 Several studies have found a link between vitamin D deficiency and various disorders that have an inflammatory link. As well, studies have shown an association between vitamin D deficiency and inflammation in otherwise healthy people, and a decrease in inflammation with vitamin D supplementation.
Several clinical studies have shown the :: anti-inflammatory :: effects of niacinamide and its benefits of in both rheumatoid and osteoarthritis. Pantothenate or vitamin B5 has been shown in several studies to influence wound healing and collagen synthesis. Some studies have also shown that low levels of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) are inversely related to increased joint pain and stiffness.
Several of the B vitamins target inflammation and in particular the pro-inflammatory cytokines including vitamins B6, B12 and folic acid. Methylcobalamin, as well as other methyl group donors such as folic acid, betaine, methionine, with the aid of B6, have multiple functions in the body including increasing the formation of SAMe and the conversion of homocysteine (high levels are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease) to the essential amino acid methionine.
:: Minerals :: are required for normal cell function and several serve as cofactors in the many enzymatic processes involved in synthesis of connective tissue macromolecules. Calcium and phosphorus (in the form of phosphates), and vitamin D to regulate both, are important for joint and bone health. Vitamin D In addition to its effects on calcium metabolism, also plays a role in the normal turnover of articular cartilage.
Boron and manganese are critical cofactors for collagen and GAG synthesis and metabolism. Some pharmaceuticals are known to negatively interact with some minerals. Supplementation of these minerals should ensure adequate supply in the body.
Clinical evidence suggests that :: zinc deficiencies :: have a high impact on connective tissue synthesis. Zinc primarily acts as cofactor in many enzyme systems that regulate cell proliferation and growth and in immune integrity. Diminution of collagen synthesis and strength as well as impaired healing is seen in animal tissues with zinc deficiencies.
Copper is a co-enzyme for lysyl-oxidase, which is essential for the conversion of collagen and elastin, and subsequently for joint function. It also has anti-inflammatory properties and may ease pain in arthritic and damaged joints.
:: Joint Support :: contains therapeutic amounts of all of the above vitamins and minerals as well as several dozen other ingredients to help you to prevent musculoskeletal problems and to deal with muscle aches, pains and injuries.
For example, ample amounts of vitamin B12 are also included in Joint Support, at levels 10 times the amount found in most other products. As well, the B12 is in the form of methylcobalamin, the metabolically active form of B12, which is better absorbed and used by the body compared with the synthetic cyanocobalamin, the less expensive form of B12 usually used in nutritional supplements.
Joint Support is formulated to support muscle, cartilage and joint function in many ways. First of all by maintaining tissue integrity it helps prevent musculoskeletal problems. Secondly it provides the mechanisms and stimulus for repair of injured or damaged musculoskeletal tissue, whatever the cause. It also offers relief for aches and pains.
By providing several dozen ingredients that work along synergistic pathways to decrease inflammation and promote the body’s natural synthesis and maintenance of joints, ligaments, muscles and tendons, it protects, prevents and helps in the repair of musculoskeletal injuries and inflammation, regardless of the cause.
Joint Support is used by thousands of bodybuilders and other athletes, both amateur and professional, to help them get the most out of their training. It’s also used by countless health professionals as an aid to both prevent and treat injuries.
1. Jakeman P, Maxwell S. Effect of antioxidant vitamin supplementation on muscle function after eccentric exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology 1993; 67:426-30.
2. Thompson D, Williams C, McGregor SJ, Nicholas CW, McArdle F, Jackson MJ, Powell JR. Prolonged vitamin C supplementation and recovery from demanding exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2001 Dec;11(4):466-81.
3. Itoh H, Ohkuwa T, Yamazaki Y, Shimoda T, Wakayama A, Tamura S, Yamamoto T, Sato Y, Miyamura M. Vitamin E supplementation attenuates leakage of enzymes following 6 successive days of running training. Int J Sports Med. 2000 Jul;21(5):369-74.
4. Glerup H, Mikkelsen K, Poulsen L, et al. Commonly recommended daily intake of vitamin D is not sufficient if sunlight exposure is limited. J Intern Med 2000;247:260–8.
:: Dr. Mauro Di Pasquale :: is one of the most influential voices on diet, performance and athletic training in the world. His innovative work in finding safe nutritional alternatives to anabolic steroids and other performance-enhancing drugs has won him praise from athletes, trainers and fitness experts around the globe. Dr. Di Pasquale was a world-class athlete for over 15 years, winning the World Championships in powerlifting in 1976 and world games in 1981.